Table 1

Articles included in this review

STUDYDESIGNSAMPLEINTERVENTION GROUPCONTROL GROUPOUTCOMES MEASURED
Baron et al,15 1990RCT with 12-mo follow-up at a single general practice368 subjects (189 men, 179 women) aged 25–60 y were recruited in England. Mean age for the intervention group was 41.2 y (SD 1.0 y) for men and 41.1 y (SD 1.0 y) for women, and for the control group was 41.6 y (SD 1.0 y) for men and 41.9 y (SD 1.1 y) for women97 men and 90 women were given dietary advice and guidelines by a practice nurse in 30-min group or individual sessions. Subjects were given a diet booklet containing advice and recipes. There was a brief follow-up at 1 and 3 mo. Advice was to decrease intake of total fat and increase intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fibre. Retention rate was 89%92 men and 89 were given usual care with no dietary advice. Retention rate was 93%TC and LDL and HDL levels were assessed at 1-yr follow-up
OXCHECK study group,16 1995RCT with 36-mo follow-up at 5 general practices4121 subjects aged 35–64 y were recruited in the United Kingdom2205 subjects received lifestyle advice from a practice nurse at 45– to 60-min health checkups with 10- to 20-min follow-ups. Advice was tailored to individual patients’ risk factors. 1100 subjects received annual checkups, and 1105 did not. Retention rate was 81.7%1916 subjects received usual care. Retention rate was 81.3%TC, BP, and BMI were assessed at 3-y follow- up
Elley et al,17 2003Cluster RCT with 12-mo follow-up at 23 intervention and 19 control practices878 subjects (296 men, 582 women) aged 40–79 y were recruited from general practices in New Zealand. Mean age for the intervention group was 57.2 y (SD 10.8 y) and for the control group was 58.6 y (SD 11.5 y). Only subjects considered “less active” (< 30 min of physical activity 5 d/wk) were enrolled451 subjects (150 men, 301 women) received counseling on physical activity from a GP or practice nurse. Clinicians counseled verbally then gave out written advice on home-based exercise. Written advice and patient information were forwarded to exercise specialists who made 3, 10- to 20-min follow-up calls. Retention rate was 85%427 subjects (146 men, 281 women) received usual care. Retention rate was 85%Cardiovascular risk score, BP, and BMI were assessed at 1-y follow-up
Kastarinen et al,18 2002Open RCT with 24-mo follow-up at 10 primary care centres341 subjects (48% male in intervention group and 46% male in control group) aged 25–74 y with primary hypertension were recruited in primary care in Finland. Mean age was 54.4 y (SD 10.1 y) in the intervention group and 54.2 y (SD 9.9 y) in the control group175 subjects in a no-drug treatment group were given lifestyle counseling (less sodium, alcohol, and saturated fat; weight reduction; physical activity) based on individual risk factors by practice nurses with visits at 1, 3, 6, 9, 15, 18, and 21 mo. Two 2-h group sessions on salt and weight reduction were held at 6 and 18 mo. Retention rate was 84%166 subjects received usual care. Retention rate was 80%BP was assessed at 2-y follow- up
Roderick et al,19 1997RCT with 12-mo follow-up at 8 general practices956 subjects (48% male in intervention group and 52% male in control group) 30–59 y were recruited from general practices in the United Kingdom. Spouses were encouraged to enrol. Mean age was 47.2 y in the intervention group and 47.4 y in the control group473 subjects were given dietary advice based on negotiated change and healthy living literature by a practice nurse at an initial session. Nurses negotiated up to 5 diet changes based on a food- frequency questionnaire interpreted for individual cases. Overweight patients were given special diet plans with calorie- restricted diets. Retention rate was 80% overall483 subjects received usual care with standard healthy living literature and annual follow-up. Retention rate was 80% overallTC, BMI, and BP were assessed at 1-y follow- up
Salkeld et al,20 1997RCT with 12-mo follow-up at 75 general practices755 subjects (387 men, 368 women) 18–69 y with ≥ 1 modifiable risk factors for CVD were recruited from general practices in Australia. Mean age in the group shown the video was 51 y for men and 52 y for women. Mean age in the group shown the video and given self-help materials was 50 y for men and 51 y for women. Mean age in the control group was 53 y for men and 56 y for women2 separate interventions were conducted by physicians: 269 subjects were shown a video on lifestyle, and 231 subjects were shown the video and also given written self-help materials. The interventions targeted healthy eating, physical activity, and smoking cessation. Retention rate for the video group was 74%; retention rate for the video and self-help materials group was 67%255 subjects received usual care. Retention rate was 51%BP (diastolic only), TC, and BMI were assessed at 1-y follow-up
Steptoe et al,21 1999Cluster RCT with 12-mo follow-up at 20 general practices883 subjects (406 men, 477 women) with a mean age of 46.7 y (SE 0.4) were recruited from general practices in the United Kingdom. Subjects had ≥ 1 modifiable risk factor for CVD, such as high serum cholesterol or a high BMI316 subjects received behavioural counseling in 2–3, 20-min sessions conducted by a practice nurse targeted at healthy eating (low-fat, high fruit and vegetable intake), physical activity (increased to 12 moderately intense sessions/mo), and smoking cessation. The intervention operated on a “stages of change” model where counseling is tailored to individual readiness to change behaviour. Nurses telephoned subjects to reinforce counseling between sessions. Retention rate was 53%567 subjects received usual care. Retention rate was 62%TC, BMI, and BP were assessed at 1-y follow-up
  • BP—blood pressure, BMI—body mass index, CVD—cardiovascular disease, HDL—high-density lipoprotein, LDL—low-density lipoprotein, RCT—randomized controlled trial, SD—standard deviation, SE—standard error, TC—total cholesterol.