Table 1.

Outcomes considered relevant for study inclusion

OUTCOMEWHAT THE OUTCOME INCLUDES
Morbidity and mortalityMortality, fatal and nonfatal overdose, suicide, hospitalization or emergency department visits, and acquiring infections such as hepatitis B and C
Societal outcomesCrime, incarceration, employment, housing, and transmission of infections such as hepatitis B and C
Quality of life and symptomsIncidence of adverse events, withdrawal symptoms, patient satisfaction, quality-of-life scales, and scales related to guideline questions (eg, pain, anxiety)
Opioid use and treatment retentionOngoing opioid use (from urine toxicology preferentially) and remaining in treatment