Table 2

Studies addressing withdrawal or addiction associated with zopiclone

Mamelak et al,33 198267.5Insomniac patientsZopiclone, treated for 3 wk, no carry over effect and no rebound insomnia
Dorian et al,34 198397.5Normal volunteersDouble-blind placebo controlled, treated for 3 wk, increased anxiety and lighter sleep on withdrawal for days shortly after discontinuation
Lader and Denney,35 1983102.5 to 10Normal volunteersDouble-blind placebo controlled, dose response curve for residual overnight effects as determined with electroencephalogram and psychological tests
Bechelli et al,36 1983403.75Weaned alcoholicsZopiclone vs triazolam, double-blind randomized crossover, zopiclone use likened to alcohol use, more likely to choose zopiclone over triazolam
Boissl et al,37 1983403.5Weaned alcoholicsZopiclone vs triazolam, double-blind randomized crossover, no difference in replacement potential for alcohol
Lader and Frcka,38 1987103.75 to 7.5Normal volunteersZopiclone and placebo and temazepam, double-blind comparisons, zopiclone rebound effects minimal, withdrawal of total dose no different than tapering
Fleming et al,39 1990487.5Chronic insomniacsZopiclone vs triazolam, double-blind, worse psychomotor deterioration after triazolam than zopiclone, 3 of 24 zopiclone patients felt agitated early after withdrawal
Ponciano et al,40 1990247.5Chronic insomniacsZopiclone and placebo and _urazepam, double-blind randomized, treated for 3 wk, zopiclone has no effect on early morning performance and free of residual sedative activity
Ngen and Hassan,41 1990157.5Insomniac patientsZopiclone and placebo and temazepam, randomized study, treated for 2 wk, no psychomotor performance deterioration
Pecknold et al,42 1990117.5Chronic insomniacsTreated for 7 to 8 wk, return of sleep variables to pretreatment baseline after withdrawal, 1 of 11 patients had marked rebound insomnia and daytime anxiety for the first wk off
Begg et al,43 1992887.5General sleep disorderZopiclone vs midazolam, treated for 1 wk, more rebound insomnia with zopiclone
Lemoine et al,44 19951027.5Chronic insomniacsTreated for 3 mo, withdrawal effects despite tapering dose
Mann et al,45 1996117.5Normal volunteersTreated for 12 d, rebound insomnia after discontinuation, increased REM sleep after discontinuation, no effect on nocturnal melatonin secretion
Sikdar and Ruben,32 199610090 to 380Multidrug abusersStrong cravings, feeling edgy, rebound insomnia, tolerance to sedative properties
Stip et al,46 1999207.5Insomniac patientsZopiclone and placebo and temazepam, double-blind, treated for 3 wk, no rebound insomnia or anxiety with either
Voderholzer et al,47 2001117.5Normal volunteersZopiclone and zolpidem and triazolam and placebo, double-blind, treated for 4 wk, minimal rebound effects
Tsutsui et al,48 20012487.5Insomniac patientsZopiclone vs zolpidem, treated for 2 wk, zopiclone group had 15.4% with rebound insomnia
Johansson et al,49 200323
Not reportedAlcoholics
Alcoholics more often dependent on zopiclone than controls
Jaffe et al,50 2004297Not reportedAddiction treatment centres5.1% claimed to be addicted to zopiclone