Table 6

Sources of vitamin D

SunExposure has never been known to cause toxicity; however, risk of skin cancer increases with exposure47
Oily fish or fish oilsHigh levels of vitamin A in fish oils (cod, halibut); sometimes high levels of mercury and other toxins (dioxins) are found in fish130,131
Fortified foods, such as milk, soya milk, or rice milk (in some countries); cereal; orange juiceLactose intolerance limits consumption of milk for some people; celiac disease limits consumption of cereal for some people
Shittake mushrooms (sun-dried)91Beneficial for those on a strict vegan diet
SupplementsInexpensive (<5ยข/d for 2000 international units of vitamin D3); vitamin D2 is ergocalciferol; vitamin D3 is cholecal-ciferol, which is 1.7 times as potent as ergocalciferol