Table 2

Criteria for diagnosing ankyloglossia

Hogan et al52005Frenulum extending along 25%–100% of tongues’ total length
Ricke et al92005Hazelbaker’s assessment tool17 for lingual frenulum function
Griffiths62004Frenulum thick; tongue heart-shaped when protruded
Ballard et al82002Hazelbaker’s assessment tool17 for lingual frenulum function
Messner et al72000Frenulum abnormally short
Messner and Lalakea112000Frenulum abnormally short; decreased mobility of tongue tip
Masaitis and Kaempf31996Tongue heart-shaped when protruded; inability to bring tongue over lower gum ridge; abnormally short, thick frenulum; maternal nipple trauma
Harris et al201992Frenulum short, thick, and fibrous; frenulum extends to the papillated surface of tongue
Marmet et al21990Inability to bring tongue over lower gum ridge; normal breastfeeding sucking motion inhibited; tongue heart-shaped when protruded
Notestine121990Frenulum <1 cm in length; tongue heart-shaped when protruded; tight feeling when finger placed under tongue along midline; tongue cannot reach gum line when protruded
Fleiss et al191990Tongue tip cannot reach top of gums; tongue tip cannot swing from one corner of mouth to the other; tongue displays notching when protruded; tongue cannot be protruded beyond lower gum
Jorgenson et al211982Frenulum prevents protrusion of tongue; frenulum extends to papillated surface of tongue; frenulum fissures tongue tip during normal movements