Table 1 Clinical characteristics of participants by sex

A) Mean measurements. B) Percentage of participants with various characteristics.

MALE, MEAN (SD)FEMALE, MEAN (SD)TOTAL, MEAN (SD)
CHARACTERISTICSN = 254N = 489N = 743
A)
BMI, kg/m233.8 (11.2)34.1 (8.4)34.0 (9.4)
Waist circumference, cm110.8 (13.1)111.4 (13.7)111.2 (10.3)
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg133.6 (17.4)130.8 (18.4)131.7 (18.0)
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg79.3 (10.5)76.0 (10.1)77.1 (10.3)
MAP, mm Hg97.4 (11.5)94.2 (11.1)95.3 (11.3)
HbA1c, %8.3 (2.1)8.2 (2.0)8.2 (2.0)
Cholesterol, mmol/L5.52 (1.4)5.40 (1.1)5.44 (1.2)
B)MALE, % (95% CI)FEMALE, % (95% CI)TOTAL, % (95% CI)
CHARACTERISTICSN = 254N = 489N = 743
BMI, kg/m2
 • % normal BMI (18.5–24.9)12 (2.6–22.2)11 (3.4–18.2)11 (4.5–18.1)
 • % overweight (25–29.9)29 (20.7–37.5)22 (15.4–29.0)25 (18.3–30.9)
 • % obese (> 30)59* (52.6–64.4)67* (62.9–71.1)64 (59.8–68.4)
Waist circumference, cm
 • % with abnormal waist circumference (> 102 for men; > 88 for women)76* (69.4–81.6)95* (93.0–97.0)88 (86.0–90.9)
MAP, mm Hg
 • % with hypertension (> 130/80)68* (62.0–73.0)57* (52.9–61.9)61 (56.3–65.3)
Foot risk category
 • % with no abnormality (0)55* (50.2–60.6)67* (60.7–68.9)63 (59.5–66.3)
 • % at low risk (1)18 (10.1–26.5)14 (8.4–18.6)15 (9.5–20.7)
 • % at moderate risk (2)16 (8.0–24.6)16 (11.0–21.4)16 (10.6–21.8)
 • % at high risk (3)10* (2.2–17.8)4* (0–7.0)6 (0.5–10.9)
HbA1c, %
 • % with optimal HbA1c (< 7)30 (21.1–39.7)30 (23.8–36.6)30 (25.2–35.2)
 • % with inadequate HbA1c (> 8.4)44 (35.8–52.2)42 (36.4–48.0)43 (38.3–47.1)
Cholesterol, mmol/L
 • % with high cholesterol (> 5.2)58 (50.7–64.8)58 (52.9–62.4)58 (53.9–61.3)
 • % with abnormal ratio (> 2 for men; > 2.8 for women)49* (41.1–56.6)33* (26.9–39.5)39 (34.3–43.5)
Other
 • % with proteinuria20* (9.6–29.4)10* (2.7–17.7)13 (7.6–19.2)
 • % with retinopathy40* (19.3–32.5)26* (19.3–32.5)31 (25.8–35.8)
  • BMI—body mass index, CI—confidence interval, HbA1c—glycated hemoglobin A1c, MAP—mean arterial pressure.

  • * Significant sex difference (P < .05).