Table 2.

Results of univariable and multivariable analyses with complete case analysis: N = 6789.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES (REFERENCE CATEGORY)UNADJUSTED β (UNSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT)STANDARD ERROR OF UNADJUSTED βUNADJUSTED R2ADJUSTED β (UNSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT)STANDARD ERROR OF ADJUSTED βADJUSTED R2(% OF TOTALR2EXPLAINED)
Physician-related variables
Physician age−0.24*0.040.005*−0.16*0.040.002 (0.6)*
Years in medical practice−0.25*0.040.006*
Male physician sex8.55*0.820.016*6.20*0.720.006 (1.7)*
Additional postgraduate training after family medicine residency6.97*0.820.011*3.22*0.680.002 (0.6)*
Payment via fee-for-service only−10.12*0.780.024*−7.88*0.680.016 (4.6)*
Availability of health care resources to main practice setting
Specialists−2.08*0.400.004*−1.13*0.350.001 (0.3)
Hospital beds1.09*0.370.0010.970.360.001 (0.3)
Practice organization
No. of different types of allied health professionals in main practice setting−2.84*0.300.013*1.33*0.310.002 (0.6)*
Main practice setting (private office)0.010*0.009 (2.6)*
  • Community clinic, CHC, CLSC−12.32*1.55−11.87*1.50
  • Academic family medicine teaching unit2.24§2.228.97*1.90
Practice type (solo practice)0.019*0.007 (2.0)*
  • Family physician group practice6.58*0.935.35*0.81
  • Family physician–specialist group practice−7.30*1.491.95§1.32
Geographic variables0.095*0.110 (31.3)*
Population served (urban)
  • Semiurban16.43*0.9617.20*0.86
  • Rural24.57*1.0323.96*0.97
Provinces (Quebec)0.195*0.195 (55.6)*
  • Newfoundland and Labrador28.75*2.8326.89*2.59
  • Prince Edward Island35.07*3.6229.91*3.28
  • New Brunswick39.73*2.6337.65*2.40
  • Nova Scotia34.64*2.0034.54*1.85
  • Ontario21.87*0.9627.31*0.94
  • Manitoba26.33*2.1626.07*1.97
  • Saskatchewan47.54*2.1648.29*1.99
  • Alberta33.54*1.3935.52*1.31
  • British Columbia40.00*1.1443.68*1.14
  • CHC—community health centre, CLSC—centre local de services communautaires.

  • * P < .001.

  • Excluded or not significant in multivariable model.

  • P < .01.

  • § P > .05 (not significant).