Table 2.

Epidemiologic association or conflicting studies suggesting potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation

Chronic unexplained painStraube et al,38 2009Meta-analysisInsufficient epidemiologic or RCT evidence for link between pain and insufficiency or deficiency
MSMunger et al,27 2006Prospective nested case-controlSolid association between high 25(OH)D and low risk of MS; no available dosing studies
Deterioration of cognitionAnnweiler et al,39 2009Systematic reviewNo clear association between cognitive function and 25(OH)D, but considerable heterogeneity; intervention studies inconsistent
Some infectious diseasesYamshchikov et al,40 2009Systematic reviewStrongest evidence for tuberculosis, influenza, and viral upper respiratory tract illness; considerable heterogeneity
CVDPittas et al,41 2010
Wang et al,42 2010
Systematic reviewsPossible association of 25(OH)D with hypertension and CVD (not diabetes41); prospective dosing trials suggest benefit at moderate to high doses—more studies needed
Type 2 diabetesPittas et al,41 2010Systematic reviewInsufficient evidence for association of 25(OH)D levels with incident diabetes; no good evidence on dosing studies benefiting glycemic control
Periodontal diseaseDietrich et al,43 2004Cross sectionalLow 25(OH)D levels might be associated with periodontal disease independent of effects on bone mineral density
Breast cancerGarland et al,44 2007Pooled analysis of longitudinal studiesEstimated 50% reduction in breast cancer incidence with use of 2000 IU vitamin D daily; no available dosing studies
Prostate cancerYin et al,45 2009Meta-analysis of longitudinal studiesSerum 25(OH)D not found to be associated with incident prostate cancer
  • 25(OH)D—25-hydroxyvitamin D, CVD—cardiovascular disease, MS—multiple sclerosis, RCT—randomized controlled trial.