Table 3.

Currently established benefits of vitamin D

All-cause mortalityAutier et al,49 2007Meta-analysis300–833 IU/d; mortality a secondary end point in all but 1 study
Cancer mortalityLappe et al,50 2007RCT1000 IU/d; 1179 postmenopausal women; included calcium supplement
FractureBischoff-Ferrari et al,51 2009Meta-analysis400–800 IU/d; dose dependent; 20 RCTs; independent of calcium
Muscle strengthMoreira-Pfrimer et al,52 2009RCT3000–5000 IU/d for 6 mo; elderly population
FallsBischoff-Ferrari et al,53 2009Meta-analysis700–1000 IU needed; elderly population; 8 trials
Colon cancerZhou et al,54 2009Evidentiary review1000 IU/d recommended; 25 studies included
HypertensionWitham et al,55 2009Meta-analysis11 studies; weak evidence for reduction in BP
Type 1 diabetesHyppönen et al,56 2001Prospective case control2000 IU/d; 10 821 children; relative risk reduction of 0.22 in first year of life
PsoriasisKreuter et al,57 2006RCTTopical calcipotriol equivalent to topical steroid; 80 patients for 4 wk
  • BP—blood pressure, RCT—randomized controlled trial.