Table 2.

Characteristics of studies exploring signs or symptoms predictive of CRC: Prospective, retrospective, and case-control studies conducted in primary care.

STUDYSTUDY TYPE, LENGTH OF STUDY, AND COUNTRYNO. OF PATIENTSSPECIFIC INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIANO. OF PATIENTS WITH CRC (%)INVESTIGATION USED TO CONFIRM CRC (LENGTH OF FU)CONSECUTIVE PATIENTSBLINDING TO INDEXMISSING DATA EXPLAINEDWITHDRAWALS EXPLAINED
Barwick et al,13 2004Retrospective, 8 mo, UK1442WW14 (9.7)Various, including BE, SIG, US, CSNRNoNRYes
Bat et al,27 1992Prospective, NR, Israel101≥ 80 y with rectal bleeding29 (29.7)CSNRNoNoNo
Chohan et al,28 2005Retrospective, 18 mo, UK4622WW64 (13.9)HistopathologyYesNoYesYes
Du Toit et al,29 2006Prospective, > 10 y, UK265Age ≥ 45 y with rectal bleeding15 (5.7)Mostly SIG with BE, SIG, or CS (> 10 y)YesNoNoYes
Ellis and Thompson,14 2005Prospective, 18 mo, UK319Rectal bleeding11 (3.4)SIG and BE or CS (18 mo)YesNRYesYes
Fijten et al,30 1995Prospective, 20 mo, Netherlands269Rectal bleeding9 (3.3)CS, radiography, SIG, proctoscopy, US (> 12 mo, mean 20 mo)YesYesNRYes
Flashman, et al,31 2004Prospective, 1 y, UK6952WW65 (9.4)NRYesNoYesYes
Hamilton et al,16 2008Case control, NR, UK3183 cases, 10 514 controlsHb measured in year before diagnosis3183 (100.0)Electronic recordsNoNRYesNR
Hamilton et al,17 2005Case control, NR, UK349 cases, 1744 controlsNA349 (100.0)Cancer registryNoYesYesYes
Heintze et al,18 2005Prospective, 1 y, Germany422Rectal bleeding17 (4.0)CS, SIG, rectoscopyNoYesYesYes
Helfand et al,32 1997Prospective, NR, United States201Rectal bleeding13 (6.5)SIG plus BE (6–12 mo)NoNoYesYes
Jones et al,21 2007Retrospective, 7 y, UK7523 men, 7766 womenRectal bleeding184 (2.4) men, 154 (2.0) womenNR from research databaseNoNoYesYes
Lawrenson et al,22 2006Prospective, NR, UK2 793 468Age 40–89 y9143 (0.3)Medical database (1 y)YesNoNoYes
Mant et al,33 1989Prospective, > 11 mo, Australia145Age > 40 y with rectal bleeding16 (11.0)Most CS, some SIG and BE, histopathologyYesNoNRYes
Metcalf et al,34 1996Prospective, NR, UK99Age > 40 y with rectal bleeding8 (8.1)CS and histopathologyYesNoYesYes
Muris et al,35 1993Prospective, > 15 mo, Netherlands578Abdominal pain3 (0.5)X-ray scan, US (15 mo)YesNRNoYes
Nørrelund and Nørrelund,36 1996Prospective; study 1: 3 y, study
2: 2 y; Denmark
Study 1: 208, study 2: 209New rectal bleedingStudy 1: 32 (15.4), study 2: 22 (10.5)BE and CS, histopathology, (study 1: 32–57 mo, study 2: 22–36 mo)YesNRNoYes
Panzuto et al,37 2003Prospective, 2 mo, Italy280Exclude previous CRC, recent large bowel examination41 (14.6)CS or BEYesNoYesYes
Park et al,38 2009Nested case control, NR, UK159 cases, 771 controlsNA159 (100.0)National cancer registry (average 12 y)NoNRNRYes
Parker et al,39 2007Retrospective, 5 y, UK29 007Age ≥ 25 y with rectal bleeding645 (2.2)PC medical database (2 y)YesNoYesYes
Robertson et al,24 2006Prospective, 4 y, UK604Rectal bleeding22 (3.6)SIG and hospital records (> 4 y)NoNoYesYes
Sánchez et al,40 2005Prospective, > 3 mo, Spain126Rectal bleeding6 (4.8)CSYesNoYesYes
Steine et al,41 1994Prospective, 9 mo, Norway1852NA55 (3.0)BEYesYesYesYes
Stellon and Kenwright,42 1997Prospective, > 5 y, UK26> 50 y with IDA2 (7.7)SIG with or without BEYesNoYesYes
Wauters et al,43 2000Prospective, 2 y, Belgium386Rectal bleeding27 (7.0)Histopathology (18–30 mo)YesNRYesNR
Yates et al,26 2004Retrospective, 4 y, UK431New IDA37 (8.6)Various (≥ 12 mo)YesNoYesYes
  • 2WW—2-wk wait program, BE—barium enema, CRC—colorectal cancer, CS—colonoscopy, FU—follow-up, Hb—hemoglobin, IDA—iron deficiency anemia, NA—not applicable, NR—not reported, PC—primary care, SIG—sigmoidoscopy, US—ultrasound, UK—United Kingdom.