Table 1.

Maternal characteristics

MATERNAL CHARACTERISTICTAPERED N = 86EXPOSED, NONTAPERED N = 80NONEXPOSED N = 434P VALUE
Mean (SD) age, y24.8 (4.5)23.9 (4.9)25.1 (6.3).29
Cesarean section, n (%)25 (29.1)24 (30.0)116 (26.7).78
Postpartum hemorrhage, n (%)5 (5.8)9 (11.2)36 (8.3).45
Smoking, n (%)75 (87.2)69 (86.2)206 (47.5)< .001
Alcohol use, n (%)14 (16.3)15 (18.8)94 (21.7).48
Hypertension, n (%)5 (5.8)6 (7.5)30 (6.9).90
Type 2 diabetes mellitus4 (4.7)4 (5.0)15 (3.5).73
Gestational diabetes3 (3.5)6 (7.5)37 (8.5).27