Table 2.

Tai chi research: Summary of evidence from 120 systematic reviews and recent clinical trials; there is very little evidence for italicized conditions.

EXCELLENT EVIDENCE OF BENEFITGOOD EVIDENCE OF BENEFITFAIR EVIDENCE OF BENEFIT WITH MIXED RESULTSPRELIMINARY EVIDENCE OF BENEFITEVIDENCE OF NO DIRECT BENEFIT
SPECIFIC CONDITIONS
Preventing falls6–19
  • 14 systematic reviews


Osteoarthritis25–38
  • 10 systematic reviews


Parkinson disease39–53
  • 8 systematic reviews


COPD rehabilitation54–59
  • 6 systematic reviews


Improving cognitive capacity62–68
  • 5 systematic reviews

Depression69–77
  • 8 systematic reviews


Cardiac rehabilitation78–88
  • 6 systematic reviews


Stroke rehabilitation89–95
  • 5 systematic reviews


Cognitive impairment and dementia65,98
  • 2 systematic reviews

Quality of life for cancer patients100–107
  • 7 systematic reviews


Fibromyalgia108–114
  • 4 systematic reviews


Hypertension117–121
  • 4 systematic reviews


Osteoporosis122–126
  • 3 systematic reviews

Stroke prevention127
  • 1 systematic review


Anxiety69,129
  • 2 systematic reviews


Low back pain130–133
  • 1 systematic review


Postoperative arm mobility in breast cancer patients134
  • 1 systematic review

Multiple sclerosis135–138
Schizophrenia139,140
PTSD141,142
Attention deficit disorder143,144
After brain and spinal cord injury146,147
Diabetes (eg, HbA1c)149–153
  • 4 systematic reviews


Rheumatoid arthritis154–157
  • 3 systematic reviews


Chronic heart failure158–160
  • 2 systematic reviews

GENERAL HEALTH AND FITNESS BENEFITS
Balance,161–173
  • 10 systematic reviews


Aerobic capacity159,174–178
  • 5 systematic reviews

Strength159,178–182
  • 2 systematic reviews

Well-being69,183–185
  • 4 systematic reviews

Sleep186–191
  • 2 systematic reviews

Flexibility163,173,178,182
  • 1 systematic review

Immune capacity192
Kidney function121,193,194
NA
  • COPD—chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HbA1c—hemoglobin A1c, NA—not applicable, PTSD—posttraumatic stress disorder.