Table 1.

Constructs affecting implementation of health innovations

Structural“The outer setting or external structure of the broader sociocultural context or community in which a specific organization is nested”19,22
  • Physical environment (eg, elements that pose barriers to health care access)

  • Political or social climate (eg, liberal vs conservative)

  • Public policies (eg, laws governing health care practices)

  • Economic climate (eg, funding available)

  • Infrastructure (eg, access to public transportation)

Organizational“Aspects of the organization in which an innovation is being implemented”19
  • Leadership effectiveness

  • Culture or climate (eg, extent to which an organization values and rewards an innovation)

  • Staff satisfaction or morale

Provider“Aspects of the [team, practice, or group of providers] who implements the innovation with a patient or client”19
  • Attitude toward evidence-based practice

  • Perceived control to implement an innovation

Innovation“Aspects of the innovation that will be implemented”19
  • Relative advantage of using an innovation beyond current practices

  • Quality of the evidence supporting the benefit of an innovation

Patient“Patient characteristics … that can impact implementation outcomes”19,23
  • Health-related beliefs

  • Motivation

  • Personality traits

  • Behavioural risk factors (eg, alcohol misuse)

  • Beliefs and attitudes (eg, trust or mistrust of medical practices)

  • Adapted from Chaudoir et al.19