Table 2.

Outcomes of prostate-specific antigen testing among 1000 men aged 55 to 69 y, confirmed with further diagnostic tests

SCREENING TEST RESULT AND TOTALOUTCOMETOTAL
DISEASE PRESENTNO DISEASE
PositiveA1) True positive
  • 1 has life prolonged, 5 men still die

  • 45 to 62 others are diagnosed, treated, and live the rest of their lives with that history

B) False positive
  • 178 men are investigated and found not to have cancer

279
A2) Overdiagnosis
  • 33 to 50 men are overdiagnosed.8 Many are also overtreated

NegativeC) False negative
  • 1 man has disease diagnosed clinically afterward

D) True negative
  • 720 did not benefit from the test

721
Total1028981000
  • Data in this table are our interpretation of reports of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer trial.9,10