Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the samples for cross-sectional and prospective analyses

CHARACTERISTICSCROSS–SECTIONAL ANALYSESPROSPECTIVE ANALYSES
NO MULTIMORBIDITY
(N = 514)
MULTIMORBIDITY
(N = 1237)
TOTAL SAMPLE
(N = 1751)
NO MULTIMORBIDITY
(N = 343)
MULTIMORBIDITY
(N = 685)
TOTAL SAMPLE
(N = 1028)
Mean age, y75.2*78.5*77.574.5*76.5*75.8
Female sex, %52.5*61.0*58.553.1*63.9*60.3
Mean education, y9.9*9.1*9.310.3*9.6*9.8
Mean MMSE score27.0*25.9*26.227.6*26.9*27.1
Mean CES-D score4.1*9.1*7.63.8*8.0*6.6
Functional status, %
  • Excellent or good86.0*52.1*62.190.1*64.1*73.0
  • Mild impairment9.9*32.3*25.77.9*28.3*21.5
  • Moderate or severe impairment4.1*15.6*12.21.5*7.6*5.5
  • CES-D—Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, MMSE—Mini-Mental State Examination.

  • * Denotes significance (P < .05).