Table 1.

Eligibility and optimal screening and monitoring definitions for study outcomes

Cervical cancer screeningWomen aged 21 to 69 y, excluding those with hysterectomy or previous gynecologic cancerPapanicolaou test in the past 3 y
Breast cancer screeningWomen aged 50 to 74 y, excluding those with breast cancer or a mastectomyMammogram in the past 2 y
Colorectal cancer screeningAdults aged 50 to 74 y, excluding those with inflammatory bowel disease or with colorectal and anal cancerFecal occult blood test in the past 2 y, or barium enema or sigmoidoscopy in the past 5 y or colonoscopy in the past 10 y
Optimal diabetes monitoringDiagnosis of diabetesRetinal eye examination in the past 2 y, cholesterol test in the past 2 y, and hemoglobin A1c test in the past 6 mo
  • * We determined eligibility using clinical practice guidelines from Cancer Care Ontario37 and the Canadian Diabetes Association.38

  • We used physician billing data and information from the Ontario Cancer Registry to help determine which adults should be excluded from screening calculations.

  • We determined cancer screening using physician and laboratory billing data as well as data from the Ontario Breast Screening Program. We obtained data on hemoglobin A1c and cholesterol testing from laboratory claims and determined eye examination rates using physician and optometrist service claims.