Table 1.

Outcomes considered relevant for study inclusion

Morbidity and mortalityMortality, fatal and nonfatal overdose, suicide, hospitalization or emergency department visits, and acquiring infections such as hepatitis B and C
Societal outcomesCrime, incarceration, employment, housing, and transmission of infections such as hepatitis B and C
Quality of life and symptomsIncidence of adverse events, withdrawal symptoms, patient satisfaction, quality-of-life scales, and scales related to guideline questions (eg, pain, anxiety)
Opioid use and treatment retentionOngoing opioid use (from urine toxicology preferentially) and remaining in treatment