Table 1.

Evidence for intervals of repeat screening

DISEASE OR CONDITIONSOURCE OF RECOMMENDATIONSOURCE OF EVIDENCEAGE TO START OR STOP SCREENINGINTERVAL RECOMMENDATION
Cancer
Cervical
    • Papanicolaou testsCTFPHC guideline8International Agency for Research on Cancer925-70 y3 y
    • HPV testsAmerican Cancer Society guideline10American Cancer Society1025-70 y5 y
BreastCTFPHC guideline1Meta-analysis1150-75 y2-3 y
ColorectalCTFPHC guideline12Trials13,1450-74 y2 y
LungEuropean expert group15Trials16,1760-80 yAnnually at first, then every 2 or more y
Cardiovascular
Hypertension and dyslipidemiaEuropean expert group18*Modeling using Whitehall study18> 40 yLow risk: 7 y
Intermediate risk: 4 y
Intermediate to high risk: 1 y
DiabetesCTFPHC guideline1Meta-analysis1940 yLow risk: no screen
Medium risk: every 3-5 y
High risk: annual
Other
Osteoporotic fractureCohort study20Gourlay et al20Women: ≥ 65 y
Men: insufficient evidence
T-score -1.5 to -2: 15 y
T-score <-2 to -2.5: 5 y
Cohort study21Crandall et al21Screen once (no repeat)
Abdominal aortic aneurysmCTFPHC guideline2Meta-analysis2Men: 65 yOnce (no repeat)
  • ASCVD—atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, CTFPHC—Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, FINDRISC—Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, HPV—human papillomavirus.

  • *Cardiovascular risk was defined by the ASCVD calculator as the 10-year risk of cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, death from coronary artery disease, fatal or nonfatal stroke). Low risk was defined as less than 2.5%. Intermediate risk was from 2.5% to less than 5%. Intermediate to high risk was from 5% to 10%. High risk was greater than 10%, which was the threshold for active management.

  • Diabetes risk was determined by FINDRISC22: ≤ 14 points: low risk, no screen; 15 to 20 points: medium risk, screen every 3 to 5 y; ≥ 21 points: high risk, screen annually.